16 Nov 2018, 5:28am

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The Walworthians: Benjamin DeNicholas

The Walworthians


A collection of telephone interviews published in the Wayne County STAR Newspaper and Wayne County MAIL Newspaper, 1994-209

by Kate Chamberlin


Benjamin DeNicholas

December 13, 2001

Long-time readers might remember a book that was serialized in the Wayne County STAR entitled: Not a Drop to Drink. It was the creative work of a local author, Benjamin DeNicholas. Mr. DeNicholas was born in Marion (NY) in a home on south Main Street about 88-years ago. Both He and the home are still doing quite well!

Mr. DeNicholas recalled the stories of his being born at home, with probably Dr. Davis of Newark or Dr. Essler of Walworth on call.

As a young man, he was not happy with the University of Syracuse, so his father encouraged Mr. DeNicholas to attend the University of Madrid, Spain, where he studied Literature for four years. Writing science-fiction, short stories became his genre. “Not a Drop to Drink” was about a world-wide drought and the ramifications it entailed. “Deep Freeze”, which was published in 1990, was also a sci-fi desaster story.

Mr. DeNicholas says that an agent is a must for an author and has used Mrs. Schlesinger of New York City as his agent for many years. He recalled that when he submitted “Teen Terrorist U.S.A.”, she sent it back to him with the admonishment to scramble the details on how to make a bomb, because some fool might actually try to make one.

He wrote his stories in long-hand and his wife would type them. He explained that his agent and especially the publishers wouldn’t accept long-hand manuscripts.

Many years ago, when the DeNicholases were living in Jamesville and Rod Sterling had a cottage on Canandaigua Lake, Ben and his wife were invited to join them for dinner. As they entered, Mr. Sterling handed Ben a glass of Vodka.

“I don’t drink,” Ben said, “but I drank that drink. It was a very nice three-hour dinner and resulted in my writing several stories for his television program ‘The Twilight Zone’.

Ben has lived in a house near the center of Wolcott for the past ten-years, although he previously owned the old Pitts farm where he did a little logging from his own woods. He’d skid the logs next door to the Pettit sawmill for processing.

“Not much has changed,” he commented. “The hotel is still there. It’s a nice town. I like it here.”

I asked him if he’d be writing his auto-biography or at least jot down a few vignettes.

“I could,” he chuckled, “but more than 30-years of writing is enough.”

Well, it takes a good author to know how and when to end a story. The next time you see him, though, ask him about the stories he wrote for Alfred Hitchcock.

Thank you, Benjamin DeNicholas. Wayne County is proud of you and your accomplishments.



16 Nov 2018, 5:24am

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The Walworthians: The Lemonade Society

The Walworthians


A collection of telephone interviews published in the Wayne County STAR Newspaper and Wayne County MAIL Newspaper, 1994-209

by Kate Chamberlin


Wayne Area Low-Vision Support

September 06, 2001

Lemonade Society meets Wednesday, September 12, 2001

The Wayne Area Low-Vision Support Group a.k.a. The Lemonade Society will hold its regular meeting on Wednesday, September 12th from 10:30-Noon in the Newark Public Library Board Room, 121 High Street, Newark.

All wayne area adults who are legally blind, blind or losing their eye sight are invited to join us for round-table discussions about adaptive aids and techniques, physicians, home-care, emotional support and many other eye related topics.

No reservation is needed for the regular monthly meeting, but if you’d like more information or directions, for the library’s handicap entrance, please call: Mrs. Florence Declark at (315)331-1995 or Mrs. Kate Chamberlin at 315-986-1267.


2018 Up-Date: The Lemonade Society met for over 15-years – the longest active support group in Wayne and possibly Monroe County. Our last meeting was in 2015 due to the lack of transportation, diminished referrals by agencies, and the demise of members. The Lemonade Society expanded into the Wayne County Nursing Home    as The Lemonade Society Auxiliary, for its monthly meetings, as several of our members moved into the facility.

12 Nov 2018, 5:37am

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Vetran Tribute: C. T. Furgeson


Charles Thomas Furgeson,  Lt. Col. (Ret.)

By Kate Chamberlin


Charles (Tom) Furgeson graduated from Palmyra Macedon Central School District in 1955.  He was active in glee club, band, orchestra and dance band.  He also was on the football, basketball, baseball and tennis teams, as well as, active in Boy Scouts, his community and his church.


Tom graduated from SUNY Technical Institute at Alfred in 1958 with an AAS in Mechanical Engineering and, then, from Alfred University in 1961 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Physics and Math.  He also earned a Master of Science Degree in Education from Elmira College in 1984


In 1961, he entered the army through the ROTC program at Alfred University and served as an Infantry Officer in Airborne, Ranger and Special Forces Units for the next 30 years.  Tom spent 5 years in Germany, 2-1/2 years in Vietnam, 1 in Korea and 1 in Iran.


his two tours of duty at the Pentagon were in the research and development field, due to his engineering background.  The first tour he was chief of the infantry small arms division and the second tour he was deputy test director for the development of the current Army infantry fighting vehicle.


Tom also served as the US representative to the ABCA (American, British, Canadian, Australian) small arms standardization board and to the NATO small arms committee.


In early 1980 Tom was assigned a deputy commander at Fort Drum, NY with a follow on, and final, assignment to Seneca Army Depot, NY.


Upon his retirement from the service, Tom became a New York State Division of Veterans ‘Affairs Associate.  He was responsible for ensuring the quality of educational programs for, and used, by veterans, throughout western New York State. This required on-site reviews and evaluations of educational institutions, including review of curricula and counseling services.


In retirement, Tom enjoyed all outside activities as well as travel with his wife Barbara throughout the United States to visit their five children.


An accurate description of a battle and tom’s character can be found in “Vietnam: 3 battles”, originally published as “the fields of bamboo: three battles just beyond the china sea” by Samuel Lyman Atwood Marshall. S.L.A. Marshall was a chief U.S. army combat historian during world war ii and the Korean War.


Tom Furgeson went to be with Our Lord on Thursday, September 10, 2015. He was an extraordinary man with a hero’s history; not to mention, deep feelings beneath the smile and jokes. Our heartfelt prayers are with him and those he left behind.


9 Nov 2018, 5:09pm

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The Walworthians: Kathryn Youngman nee Luke

The Walworthians


A collection of telephone interviews published in the Wayne County STAR Newspaper and Wayne County MAIL Newspaper, 1994-209

by Kate Chamberlin


Kathryn (Luke) Youngman

b.October 23, 1931 – d. February 21, 2001

March 01, 2001

When Dave and I first moved to Walworth in 1972 to build our home, we stopped into Youngman’s Variety Store many times for little this and thats. Gordon was always on hand to help his customers – even the ones who came in with a thing-a-abob that needed a new you-know-what. He’d find it right away each time.

Katie was to be found at the check-out counter with a smile and a frendly chat.

The big thing was to go from the front of the store to the back of the store where the soda fountain was. Once you were seated, Katie would come from the front and serve you. We usually only asked for ice cream cones, but it was a big treat.

It was a memorable experience of the now vanishing Americana.

We are truly saddened with the passing of this lovely lady.  She will always be a Walworthian with the accent on worth.

Good-bye, Katie. We love you.



30 Oct 2018, 10:31am

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The Walworthians: Howard Triou

The Walworthians


A collection of telephone interviews published in the Wayne County STAR Newspaper and Wayne County MAIL Newspaper, 1994-209

by Kate Chamberlin

Howard Triou, Builder of Homes and Family Values

February 08, 2001

Howard Triou is one of the people in our neighborhood. Many of us live in Triou built homes and know him to be a man of integrity.

“I started in the home building business in 1951,” Mr. Triou said a few weeks ago during our telephone interview. “We did all the work ourselves – block work, roughing, electric, plumbing.  We did all of it. My son Daryl work before and after school with me since he was in high school. He took over the business in 1975.”

Triou’s grandparents emigrated from Holland when his dad was just a few months old and settled in this area. The name, Triou, is French and Howard was born on November 14, 1918.

“Growing up I had oil lamps and no indoor plumbing when my folks lived on S. Wayneport Road,” he said. ” The doctor came to the house to deliver my brother and sister. I worked with my father on a muck farm growing celery, potatoes, carrots, onions and lettuce on 12-acres. I used a horse and one-bottom plow to work the soil.

“When my Dad first changed from driving a buggy to  a Model T Ford in 1926, the only paved roads were Ridge Road and Route 31 . To go to Grammar School, I had to walk a mile and a half. Then when I attended the Fairport High School, I rode my bike two miles to catch the bus.

“I remember when there were 3-cents newspapers, 6-cents for bread, 10-cents for a hamburger and only 15-cents for a pork chop.” During the slow farming months, Triou worked at the Doberiender dairy farm for $1 a day plus his lunch.

One day, he and a buddy were walking passed the Walworth Methodist Church and noticed two girls sitting on the block in front of the church. His buddy introduced Howard and his future wife that day.

After Howard and Ethel Dieffenderfer, a member of the Academy Class of 1937, were married in 1939, they lived in various rented homes in Walworth. One of them was the large home just west of Orchard Street on Rte. 441. Another was the old McMurray house, located across from the now Academy Apartments, then the Academy (Walworth High School).

“It was owned by Tuttle then,” Triou said of the home’s rental units. “That was Emily Huntley’s father. The Tuttles and Huntleys were the monied people in those days.”

Triou served our country’s WWII effort by working in the shell factory, as he was classified as 4-F by both the Army and the Navy.

Dr. Esley was the family doctor in town during the 1940’s, and the electric was a 25-cycle generator owned by the town.

“It was half of what we have now and sometimes we had electric and sometimes we didn’t,” Mr. Triou chuckled.

Years ago when there were fewer houses, more open fields and virgin forests, Mr. Triou hunted and trap foxes and managed to catch a few coyote.

“About 15-years ago, the state stocked this area with coyote,” he commented during our October, 2000 interview. “They’re native to this area and the State thought it important to re-establish them. Apparently, they’ve flourished. They’ll get small dogs, cats and turkeys. You can hear them at night. They have a yippy kind of howl, not the long hoot of a wolf.”

Mr. Triou ran a grocery store in Walworth from about 1942 until 1951. It was in the old, original Masonic Hall. The store was on the first floor and the meeting rooms were above the store. During this time, he and Ethel attended the Walworth Methodist Church. Out of respect for their religion, they never had the store open on Sundays. They sold the grocery business to Donald and Irene Brockman in 1951.

When my husband and I wanted to add a wing onto our home in 1981, we knew of Howard Triou’s impeccable reputation as a home builder, but he was retired. We asked Daryl to work with our architect, Roger Johanson, to do the construction. We have never regretted Daryl’s attention to detail, the quality of his workmanship and the respect for our wishes and time schedule. It is obvious that Daryl was taught by a Master Builder of character and integrity.

The improved electric situation and indoor plumbing are two of the things Mr. Triou thought were good improvements to the town throughout the years he has lived in our area. He is not happy about the increase in crime, though.

“We used to leave our homes unlocked,” he stated. “Young people today have too many temptations. Too many young men have no father in the family picture. We need to get the family back. The seven of us used to all sit down and have dinner together. We talked and did things together. The decline in the family brought a decline in morality.”

Howard and Ethel’s family include their grown children Daryl, Judith, Linda, Susan and Edward as well as their children’s children.

Thank you, Howard Triou. You are a Walworthian with the accent on worth.


30 Oct 2018, 10:29am

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30 Oct 2018, 10:23am

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Paisley Prints and Flashes

Possible Cause of Charles Bonnet Syndrome Discovered

Possible Cause of Charles Bonnet Syndrome Discovered
Researchers at the University of Queensland have found an association between Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) and abnormally heightened activity in the visual cortex of the brain. The findings were published October 25, 2018 in the journal Current Biology.
According to the researchers, up to 40% of people with loss of vision experience hallucinations, which are thought to result from interrupted neural signals to the visual cortex (the part of the brain that interprets sight). Named after Charles Bonnet, who first studied the phenomenon in 1780, it was later defined as “persistent or recurrent visual pseudohallucinatory phenomena of a pleasant or neutral nature in a clear state of consciousness” (Damas-Mora, 1982). The hallucinations involve flashes of light, shapes, or geometric patterns and/or complex hallucinations, including faces, animals, or entire scenes.
The reason why some people experience CBS and others do not has been a mystery, but this study may have hit upon the answer. Exposing macular degeneration patients to various flickering images while performing a task using their peripheral visual fields, the researchers found that CBS individuals showed strikingly elevated visual cortical responses to peripheral field stimulation compared with patients without hallucinations. This offers direct support for the hypothesis of visual cortical hyperexcitability in patients with CBS.
Knowing that the syndrome is a neural, rather than a brain, disorder should relieve patients of unnecessary worry, which alone might help to reduce the frequency of the hallucinations and offer some comfort to the patient. Most important, it may give doctors a subjective means of diagnosing and treating CBS.
For an audio/visual presentation about Charles Bonnet syndrome, visit www.mdsupport.org/nsg/cbs/index.html

9 Oct 2018, 12:48pm

Comments Off on DAR: Recovered Memories: Spain and the Support for the American Revolution

DAR: Recovered Memories: Spain and the Support for the American Revolution

Recovered Memories: Spain and the Support for the American Revolution

Written by: Ann Dillon, President General, NSDAR

October 9, 2018


DAR was honored to be invited by the Spanish Embassy to attend the opening of the exhibit, Recovered Memories: Spain and the Support for the American Revolution, at the Former Residence of the Ambassadors of Spain here in Washington, D.C.

Many people are not fully aware of Spain’s role in the American Revolution. In fact, even before the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the Spanish Crown had been providing money, arms and supplies to the Thirteen Colonies. Between 1776 and 1778, this aid took the form of largely-covert shipments from Europe, from Havana and also from the strategic port of New Orleans. Having declared war on Britain in 1779, Spain joined France in launching a series of major military operations on land and sea, not only in Europe but also in the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. At the same time, Spain continued to send supplies and loans to Congress until 1783.





Recovered Memories: Spain and the Support for the American Revolution showcases this support from Spain for the American colonies prior to and during the Revolutionary War, and also highlights notable Spanish figures whose lives impacted the emerging new country. The exhibit takes the visitor on a chronological journey of Spanish-American relations beginning with Spain’s own Age of Enlightenment during the reign of Charles III, through the times of European and American revolutions, and ending with the technological advancements at the turn of the 20th century.

Organized by Iberdrola and SPAIN arts & culture, the temporary exhibition is on display through November 18, 2018, at the Embassy of Spain’s Cultural Office at 2801 16th Street NW. It features historical documents and works of art. Also on display are clothing of the period, musical instruments, maps of colonial America, and many other historical pieces.





We were especially excited to see some items in the exhibit that were loaned by the Espana DAR Chapter in Spain! On display in the “Women at Arms” section of the exhibit was a commemorative medal collection that the DAR engaged The Franklin Mint to design in honor of the Bicentennial. “The Great Women of the American Revolution” collection of pewter medallions depicts women who contributed to the fight for Independence and was loaned to the Embassy of Spain by the Espana Chapter for their exhibition.

The Recovered Memories exhibit is very insightful and well done. If you are in the greater Washington, D.C., area this fall I encourage you to see it or tell others about it. The exhibit is free and open Tuesday to Sunday from 10 am to 6 pm or you can contact the Cultural Office at the Embassy of Spain (contact@spainculture.us) to book a special tour date and time. The exhibition is open from September 28 until November 18. This would make for a marvelous chapter activity.

Thank you to the Embassy of Spain and their Cultural Center for hosting this engaging and carefully documented survey of Spain’s contribution to the founding of the United States. Over the course of the exhibit, the cultural center plans to welcome nearly 1,000 students from multiple schools on field trips to learn more about the American Revolution and Spain’s involvement. What a wonderful educational opportunity!

Today’s DAR Blog, 1776 D Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

Sent by presidentgeneralsblog@dar.org


4 Oct 2018, 4:17pm

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The Walworthians: Regina Nichols

The Walworthians


A collection of telephone interviews published in the Wayne County STAR Newspaper and Wayne County MAIL Newspaper, 1994-209

by Kate Chamberlin

Regina Nichols

October 21, 1999

Regina Nichols is one of the people in our neighborhood. She lives in West Walworth, but from there it gets a little confusing. Her husband works in Rochester, her children go to the Penfield Schools, she attends Church in Penfield, her phone is the Fairport exchange and her post office address is Macedon. So where are her hearth and heart?

“I fell in love with the Walworth area,” Regina said. “My husband’s job with RG&E brought us here in 1991, so we rented for a while and I just wanted to stay.”

Although Regina has traced several ancestors to Pultneyville, she grew up in Saratoga Springs and attended NYU. She was home for a week end visit and happen to   go to a party. Despite others warnings, she met and danced with a Navy man.

“He asked if we were Skidmore girls,” Regina recalled. “It was terribly corny, but he asked me to dance and that was that.”

William Nichols is in Energy Operations with RG&E, working out of downtown Rochester. He and Regina have two daughters, Helena, age 5 and Sabrina age 3.Their family is rounded out by a German Shepherd named Shep and a 7-toed cat named Wesley.

Regina’s top priority is her family, but she manages to keep herself very busy in other ways, too. She has served on the West Walworth Election Committee, was on the St. Joseph’s Catholic Church social ministry committee that sponsored the first Habitat for Humanity in Monroe County, participated in the Walk With You Project that provides mentors to welfare to Work clients, as well as writing children’s stories in verse and serving as co-chairman of the Walworth Food Pantry.

“I saw a plea for Food Pantry volunteers in the Town Topics,” Regina said. “You think of hunger as only being in the city, but it is everywhere. I have a sense of community and I want my daughters to have it too. My 5-year old often goes with me to help pack groceries and things.”

Regina gets very enthusiastic as she talks about purchasing items in bulk, distributing them, driving around to pick up sewing machines for the mentoring program Gwyn Bassage facilitates, procuring donated cases of goods and setting up schedules for volunteers.

“Eventually,” she bubbled, “I’d like to see us have enough space to offer household items and clothing, but for now we do very well with what we have.”

The perishables come in on Tuesday evening in readiness for distribution on Wednesday evening 6:30-7:30 PM at the Walworth Baptist Church. Volunteers are always welcome to help distribute goods, bag groceries, deliver heavy items and chat with clients.

“It is also important,” she said, “that we are feeding bellies and spirits. The Out-Reach Mentoring program is building self-confidence and self-worth.”

Regina purchases the perishable goods with the cash donations, but canned goods, paper goods and toiletries may be dropped off at the Walworth Hardware, Jax’s (hair) Salon and the Town Hall from 9:00 AM-5:00 PM week days.

Various community organizations are very helpful in stocking the Food Pantry’s shelves not only at holiday times, but also all year round.

Regina didn’t want to let her college education go to waste as she stayed home with her young children, so she resurrected a manuscript she’d written during one of her college classes. It needed a little work, but she liked it and wondered if she could do it again.

She has a unique talent of writing in verse! Her stories are charming, humorous and appealing to a wide age range. “Little Rabbit Sleeping” is a manuscript for a young child’s board book she hopes to have published eventually. It opens with: Little Rabbit’s sleeping In little baby’s shoes, What a cozy place, To take a bunny snooze.

Thank you, Regina, with your sense of community, talent and mirth, you are a Walworthian with the accent on worth.

2018 Up-Date: With the advent of Food Link trucks coming to our area, the Walworth Food Pantry became redundant and disbanded.



18 Sep 2018, 5:19am

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DAR Constitution Week

From: Today’s DAR Blog <presidentgeneralsblog@dar.org>

Happy Constitution Week!

Written by: Jeanie Hornung, National Chair, Constitution Week Committee

(C)September 17, 2018


Happy Constitution Week! September 17th through the 23rd is an exciting time in America. We have the opportunity to celebrate and honor the United States Constitution. Our Constitution has endured longer than any other constitution in the world. Imagine being in Philadelphia that long, hot summer in 1787. Citizens of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania see the many influential men arriving in their city from all over the 13 states. Retired General George Washington’s arrival is celebrated with cheering, church bells ringing and a thirteen-gun salute. What will the citizens of the young nation have for governing and laws when they are done with the Constitutional Convention?

On May 14, 1787, the Convention begins. The debates are being held in secret, behind locked doors that are guarded by sentries, even the windows are closed. Fifty-five of the seventy state delegates are attending the convention. George Washington, serving as a delegate from Virginia, is elected unanimously as the President of the Constitutional Convention.

Virginia delegate James Madison, known as the “Father of the Constitution,” wrote The Virginia Plan. He is the driving force behind the convention. The first two months see angry arguments by The Committee of the Whole* over The Virginia Plan. The Virginia Plan’s fifteen resolutions expand the debate to incorporate what method of structure and authority the national government will have to administer the laws. It is the first test to create a separation of controls into an executive, legislative and judicial branch. The Virginia Plan also recommends that the legislative branch should be comprised of two houses. In the two houses, each of the states will be represented in proportion to their populations. States with a large population will have more representatives than smaller states. The larger states approve of this notion, but the smaller states do not.

The New Jersey Plan, written by New Jersey delegate William Paterson proposes a single chamber legislature in which each state, regardless of size, would have one vote, as under the Articles of Confederation. The delegates find this plan unacceptable, too.

The Connecticut Compromise, written by Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman proposes “The Great Compromise.” Sherman’s compromise suggests that each state be equally represented with a creation of two houses. The first house, the House of Representatives, would have representation according to population, and the second house, the Senate, would have an equal number of representatives regardless of population (2 per state).

Pennsylvania delegate James Wilson proposes the idea of an individual for the executive branch with direct election by the citizens. The individual would have absolute veto powers over the legislation passed by the two houses. Some delegates fear the veto power and want election of the individual by the Congress. The final compromise is the president would have limited veto powers and be elected by the people—through the establishment of the electoral college.

On July 24th, the Committee of Detail* is authorized to carry out the writing of a draft of the Constitution. The convention adjourns from July 24th to August 6th. For thirteen days, the five-man committee—Edmund Randolph, Oliver Ellsworth, James Wilson, and Nathan Gorham work with chairman John Rutledge, referencing state constitutions, the Articles of Confederation, plans submitted to the convention, and other relevant material. The Declaration of Independence is also used as an important model for its outline of ideals of self-government and fundamental human rights.

On August 6th, the convention reconvenes. The Committee of Detail* presents approximately 60 copies of its work to the delegates. These copies are used by the delegates as they work through each clause to create a final constitution. The Preamble, written by Gouverneur Morris, is added as the opening to the Constitution during the last days of the convention by the Committee on Style* which writes the final draft. It was not proposed or discussed on the floor of the convention beforehand. The final draft is done, ready for ratification, and the signatures of the delegates. However, not all the convention delegates sign the new Constitution.

Virginia delegate George Mason authored the Virginia Bill of Rights. Mason refuses to sign the Constitution because he is very concerned about the power given to the federal government and the delegates refusal to end the slave trade. Mason commented “I would sooner chop off my right hand” than sign a Constitution without a Bill of Rights. Mason’s need to have the rights and freedoms of the country’s citizens precisely detailed was eventually preserved in the first ten amendments of the US Constitution.

Virginia delegate Patrick Henry and New York delegate George Clinton also refuse to sign and are called “Anti-Federalists.” They prefer the reorganized nature of the Articles of Confederation as a check on the power of the central government. Others express reservations but thirty-four still sign, anticipating vigorous debates within their states. The five signatories who sign the Constitution but did not serve in the Continental Congress were Richard Bassett of Delaware, Jacob Broom of Delaware, John Blair of Virginia, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, and David Brearley of New Jersey.

On September 17th, the Constitution is ratified and signed. By June 1788, the necessary nine states ratify the Constitution as the law of the land, and the Continental Congress announces that the new government will begin in March 1789. James Madison, a newly elected member of the U.S. House of Representatives, presents 19 amendments to the Constitution. On September 25, 1789, Congress adopts twelve of the amendments and sends them to the states for ratification. The first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, are ratified and become part of the Constitution on December 10, 1791.

Today we have twenty-seven amendments. The seventeen amendments that follow The Bill of Rights were added from 1798 to 1992. The framers of the Constitution knew that no document could include all the changes that would take place to guarantee its longevity. The process isn’t easy–after a proposed amendment makes it through Congress, it must be ratified by three-fourths of the states.

The framers knew it wasn’t a perfect document. However, as Benjamin Franklin said on the closing day of the convention in 1787: “I agree to this Constitution with all its faults, if they are such, because I think a central government is necessary for us… I doubt too whether any other Convention we can obtain may be able to make a better Constitution.”

Celebrate Constitution Week!

*During the course of a session that lasted from May 24th through September 17th the Convention resolved itself in a Committee of the Whole during the opening weeks and subsequently appointed twelve committees to address specific issues. Committees help establish rules for the convention, formulate vital compromises, draft key sections, and give final polish to the document. (John R. Vile, The Critical Role of Committees at the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787)